How does welding work all boils down to know what welding is all about based on the techniques and everything relating to it? Welding is a process where two or more are joined by either heat or pressure or even both. Welding can be done with various tools and different types of metals. The welding process can be combined by melting different kinds of metals and used as fillers. Welding process has made lots of technological advancements, it is and has been used to create so many things.
Even though we have more than 20 different types of welding techniques which range from simple oxy-fuel down to high-tech processes such as laser beam welding, Welding combinations can be achieved with four main techniques which are arc welding, gas welding, and laser and stick welding. They are also identified as MIG (Metal, Inert Gas) or GMAW (Gas, Metal Arc Welding), and TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding but they have each type of job they are suitable for and they all have their advantages and disadvantages that need proper training to practice them.
Most people keep wondering how does welding works this is why In this post, we will be taking a look at how welding works, the types of welding we have, and welding joints.
How welding works
You need to know welding is totally different from brazing and soldering that doesn’t melt the base metal. When it comes to soldering, a filler material is usually burned between two components that are held together and closely, and only the filler material will be burnt to connect both parts in order to form a bond. Whereas when it comes to welding the base material and plastics are burnt with a high heat process that causes the base metal to melt in order to combine with the filler so as to form a stronger bond than the parental metal. Asides metals welding can also be used to join plastics and woods, you just have to know
the necessary procedures and what to do and what no to do.
When it comes to wood welding it is a fast way of joining woods together without the use of nails or adhesive, the heat generated from frictions are used to join the materials together, these materials are first taken through a process of great pressure, then a linear friction movement helps create heat that will bond them together.
Also when it comes to welding plastics the joining methods for plastics can be separated into external or internal heating methods, depending on the exact process used, the process has to be achieved in three stages, these are
First, the surfaces of the plastics have to be prepared before any heat and pressure are applied, then you apply the heat after which the materials are allowed to cool down so as to create fusion.
Welding joint types
When it comes to welding we have various types of welding joints like corner joint, T joint, Butt joint, edge joint, lap joint, cruciform joint, they can also be joined based on penetration, configuration and accessibility.
This joint is formed with a connection between the edges of two parts and forms a 30-130 degree in the region of the joints of the two metal ends.
This is used to connect one part edge to another part face, the parts are connected in an angle of 5-90 degree at the region where the joint is made.
This is done with an angle connection of 135-180 degrees between the edges or the end of the two parts and the region of the joint.
This is a common weld joint between edges. There is always a connection between the edges of the two parts that makes an angle to each other with the range of 0-30 degrees.
This is a connection between two overlapping pieces. This weld is used for 0-5 degrees angle connection.
This connection is made with two flat bars crossed across each other and welded to another flat plate using the same axis and the right angles.
When it comes to joining metals based on configuration, penetration, and accessibility they can be joined together in different ways like
When it comes to configuration welding, there are two types, we have the plug weld and the slot weld.
This is made by filling a hole into one component of metal using filler metal to join it to the surface of an overlapping component that is exposed through the way.
This is the joint between two overlapping components that are created by depositing a fillet weld around the hole in one of the components then it is joined at the surface of the other component exposed through a hole.
When it comes to penetration welding, there are two types, we have the partial penetration weld and the full penetration weld.
Partial penetration weld
During partial penetration, there is less fusion penetration. Which is done intentionally. it is also called partial joint penetration weld (PJP).
Full penetration weld
With full penetration, the welded joint fully penetrate the joints and allows complete root fusion. It is also called complete joint penetration weld (CJP)
When it comes to accessibility welding, there are two types, we have the single side weld and the double side weld
Single side weld
The weld metals are melted and inserted into one single part of the component.
Double side weld
The weld metals are melted and inserted into the two parts of each of the components.
There are two types of materials welders mostly work with, these are parent material and consumables (filler) materials.
These are multiple metal parts that are joined and surfaced together during a welding process, they can either be joined by welding, brazing, or braze welding.
Parents’ materials can include plastics, metals, and wood and they all require different degrees of temperature and methods when welding, while some of these methods require internal heating methods some also require an external heating method.
Consumables (filler) materials
These are the additional materials that are added during welding, braze welding, surfacing, or brazing. They are usually heated up in the arc and then put under or over the surfaces of the joints so as to create a very strong bond.
Different types of welding methods
There are a number of welding types and they vary based on various factors such as the purpose of the welding, the requirements for the welding, and the available materials for the welding. These factors are also to an extent determined by the level of knowledge possessed of welding by the person who wants to do it. Some types are recommended for beginners because they are relatively easy to take up and have little or no complications while some other types are strictly for people who are experts in the field. In other words, the type of welding that can be chosen by someone has to be one that they can pull off on their own. The following are the types of welding processes recognized:
This comprises of the following processes
The choice to begin with this type of welding process is intentional. MIG which stands for Metal Inert Gas is a form of welding which is recommended for beginners. In other words, new welders can easily perform this type of welding. It is simple in that it simply involves feeding the filler metal through the wand, then ensure gas is expelled around it to serve as a shield from outside elements. This is a very simple process and may not be good for outdoor use. It uses a thin wire as an electrode.
LASER BEAM WELDING
The Laser Beam Welding is one that is often used by manufacturing companies in that it involves the use of lasers as a source of heat to create the weld. It can be used on stainless steel, carbon steel, titanium, and aluminum. This type of welding may not necessarily require so many human efforts as it can be done by automated machines such as robotics.
FLUX-CORED ARC WELDING
Being a type that is similar to the MIG welding, the Flux-cored Arc welding known as FCAW also feeds the filler metals through the wand but here, the wire has a core of flux that would create a gas shield around the weld. In other words, there will not be a need for an external gas in this type of welding. Due to being a high heated welding method, the FCAW comes in handy when dealing with thicker and heavier metals as opposed to the MIG type. However, the low cost of the FCAW is one that makes it very much in use.
There is a very interesting part of this type of welding which is also known as the Herliac and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). This type of welding is quite different from the previously discussed ones because its electrode is non-consumable and it also uses tungsten. Another interesting information about TIG welding is that it does not require the use of filler metal. Making it one of the few types that can be done by with just the two metals beings welded together. The choice of using a filler metal however will require the use by hand and not a wand to feed it. Furthermore, there is the need for a gas tank in the TIG welding to supply the constant flow of gas which would serve as a protection for the weld. In other words, it is usually performed indoor but a type that is usually taken up only by experts because of the technicality involved and the neatness required in the welding as it is not one that splatters.
Even though this is a welding process that comes with a low-cost advantage, it has other disadvantages of which one is that it requires cleaning up afterward. This process of welding causes lots of splatters but is a process that is simple, easy to learn, and advisable for new welders to use. In this process, there is an electrode ‘stick’ which acts as the filler metal. The end of the stick to the base metal creates an arc that melts the electrode into filler metal and creates the weld. Another advantage of this welding process is that it does not require gas, making it suitable for outdoor uses even in the wind and in the rain–it is not disturbed by other elements that could disturb other processes that require the use of gas. Aside from the fact that stick welding is one that would require a lot of cleaning up to do after use, it is one that works so well for equipment repairs.
ELECTRON BEAM WELDING
When we talk about highly sophisticated methods of welding, the Electron beam is one of them. Usually used by manufacturing companies, this welding is one that is performed strictly by machines. The machines use kinetic energy to weld two materials together. This kinetic energy is generated by the use of a high velocity of an electron beam to create an amount of heat which would be sufficient enough to weld the materials together. Such machines are also usually in a vacuum.
ATOMIC HYDROGEN WELDING
This used to be a very popular type of welding but has been since replaced by the MIG welding. Also known as ‘arc-atom’ welding, this is a high heated welding process. In this process, hydrogen gas is used to shield two tungsten made electrodes. It can reach a relatively high temperature and can also be done without filler metal. The welder may, however, choose to still use filler metal in this process.
PLASMA ARC WELDING
One other welding process that is similar to the Plasma arc welding is the GTAW but different in the aspect of the size of the arc. As opposed to the GTAW, this process makes use of a smaller arc which thereby increases its precision in the welding and also uses a different torch which helps it to generate a higher temperature. Plasma is created through the pressurized gas inside the wand and then ionized to be electrically conductive. With this, an arc is created and a very high temperature is generated to penetrate thick metals. This makes the welding faster and also requires no use of filler metal. This process can be said to be quite close to the TIG welding process.
The last but not least process that will be discussed is the Electroslag. This is one process that is highly advanced in that it requires the joining the edge of two metal plates vertically. Contrary to the welding on the outside part of the joint of the metals, between the edges of the two metal place is where the welding will take place. There is a need for a filler metal by using a copper electrode wire. Electroslag is also an automated process because it is performed by machines and not humans.
All the above-listed techniques make use of a filler material that is used to join metals this includes aluminum, titanium, steel, etc and these process are mostly used in industrial areas and facilities.
When it comes to joining materials using mechanical friction and doesn’t require the use of filler materials or shielding gas then we make use of friction welding. This can be used on different welding materials such as steel and aluminum. Another interesting thing about this type of welding is that it can also be used in woods without the use of nails or adhesives.
What you need to get started in welding
When it comes to welding it requires a great deal of process which you must understand before going into it, you have to first understand the basics of welding, most of these welding systems works the same then you choose your first welder from the different types of welding we have, you can decide to go for MIG welding, stick welding, TIG welding and so on. You have to know first the type of welding that suits you and what you plan on working on. For a start you are like;ly to spend close to $ 200 – $ 400 on a quality welding machine, you can make researchers online or at stores around you. You can make researches online to have an idea on the range of cost on different models. You can also get a single machine that is capable of MIG, TIG and stick, it all depends on your budget.
Now we know how welding works and the extreme ways to weld. When welding we have to follow the outlined process for the best result and you also have to have an idea of the type and model of welding machine to get before going into welding. The higher your machine amp output the thicker the material it is able to weld.